Therese MICHAL was born in Salzburg on December 30, 1889 and was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church. She was a daughter of Therese and Kaspar Ennsmann1, merchants and residents of Salzburg’s Maxglan neighborhood.

Their daughter Therese war also a grocer. She was divorced and had two children: Martin (born in 1912) and Berta (born in 1913). In the 1930s Therese MICHAL changed moved several times, probably for health reasons.

On February 16, 1938, shortly before the Nazi’s occupied Austria, Therese MICHAL was admitted to the Salzburg State Asylum. She was one of the 85 women deported to the Hartheim Castle killing center near Linz Austria on May 21, 1941, where she was murdered.

As with all the other victims of the Nazis’ secret »T4«2 extermination program the death of 51 year old Therese MICHAL was not recorded in Salzburg’s police registration records.

Her children Martin and Berta survived the years of terror.

1 Kaspar Ennsmann (1848-1932) was the owner of 54 Maxglaner Hauptstraße (formerly number 44).

2 It was called »T4« because the »Euthanasie«-Central Office in Berlin was located at Tiergartenstraße 4.
Those primarily responsible for the murders of the sick in Salzburg were: Dr. Friedrich Rainer as Reich governor, Dr. Oskar Hausner as head of the district welfare office, Dr. Leo Wolfer as head of the state sanatorium and Dr. Heinrich Wolfer as head of the hereditary biology department of the state sanatorium (today the Christian Doppler Clinic).


  • War Crimes Records of the U.S. Judge Advocate Division Headquarters (The National Archives Washington DC)
  • Salzburg city and state archives
  • Salzburg Archbishopric archives (register books)
Author: Gert Kerschbaumer
Translation: Stan Nadel

Stumbling Stone
Laid 13.09.2023 at Salzburg, Maxglaner Hauptstr. 54

All stumbling stones at Maxglaner Hauptstr. 54